Gene-Trac® testing is used to quantify key microorganisms and to determine microbial community composition for the assessment of bioremediation potential and to monitor enhanced bioremediation performance by quantifying and characterizing microorganisms in groundwater and soil/sediment from contaminated sites.
Use Gene-Trac® Testing to:
- Determine if suitable microorganisms are present for MNA remedies.
- Predict the effectiveness of biostimulation before the addition of electron donor.
- Determine the need for bioaugmentation.
- Determine the impact of site amendments including, electron donors/acceptors.
- Predict if intermediates such as cDCE or vinyl chloride are likely to accumulate.
- Characterize microbial community spatial and temporal variability.
- Validate the performance of enhanced bioremediation projects.
- Make informed decisions to manage bioremediation and other microbial systems.
Quantify Environmental Microorganisms and Microbial Communities
SiREM offers a growing number of targets for Gene-Trac® testing that includes: Dehalococcoides (Dhc), Dehalobacter (Dhb) and Dehalogenimonas (Dhg), Desulfitobacterium (Dsb) and key functional genes such as vinyl chloride reductase (vcrA, bvcA), trichloroethene reductase (tceA), chloroform, 1,1,1-TCA and 1,1-DCA reductase (cfrA/dcrA). These microorganisms and functional genes are critical to reductive dechlorination of many chlorinated compounds, including chlorinated ethenes, ethanes, methanes, and propanes. Geobacter and sulfate reducers play key roles in the metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds and the generation of iron sulfur compounds critical to natural attenuation remedies. The dxmB and ALDH genes are important in the aerobic degradation of 1,4-dioxane.
Gene-Trac® quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) testing is used to quantify key dechlorinating bacteria and functional genes. If a comprehensive analysis of microbial community is required Gene-Trac® NGS (next generation sequencing) provides detailed microbial community composition to better understand the current and potential functions of microbial communities.
Available Gene-Trac® Tests Include
|Contaminant Class||Redox||Gene-Trac® Test||Target||Relevance|
|Chlorinated Ethenes||Anaerobic||Dhc||Dehalococcoides||Reductively dechlorinates PCE, TCE, all DCE isomers, VC|
|Dhb||Dehalobacter||Partial dechlorination of PCE and TCE to cDCE|
|Dsm||Desulfuromonas||Partial dechlorination of PCE and TCE to cDCE|
|Dsb||Desulfitobacterium||Partial dechlorination of PCE and TCE to cDCE|
|Geo||Geobacter||Reductive dechlorination of PCE to cDCE, regenerates reduced iron species in biogeochemical degradation|
|Dhg||Dehalogenimonas||Dechlorination of tDCE to VC and VC to ethene|
|Chloroethene FGA||Vinyl chloride reductase (vcrA)||Dechlorination of cDCE and VC to ethene|
|BAV1 Vinyl chloride reductase (bvcA)||Dechlorination of PCE and TCE to cDCE and VC|
|Trichloroethene reductase (tceA)||Aerobic dechlorination of cDCE|
|Aerobic||Polaromonas||Polaromonas||Aerobic degradation of VC|
|etn||Epoxyalkane: coenzyme M transferase (etnE)||Aerobic degradation of VC|
|Chlorinated Ethanes||Anaerobic||Dhb||Dehalobacter||Dechlorination of 1,1,1-TCA/1,1-DCA to chloroethane; 1,2-DCA /1,1,2-TCA to VC/ethene; 1,1,2,2-TeCA to tDCE|
|Dhg||Dehalogenimonas||Dechlorination of 1,2- DCA to ethene; 1,1,2,2-TeCA to c/tDCE; 1,1,2-TCA to VC|
|Dhc||Dehalococcoides||Dechlorination of 1,2-DCA to ethene; dechlorination of VC produced from 1,1,2-TCA dechlorination|
|Dsb||Desulfitobacterium||Dechlorination of 1,1,2-TCA and 1,2-DCA|
|cfrA/dcrA||Chloroform reductase (cfrA), Dichloroethane dehalogenase (dcrA)||cfrA dechlorinates 1,1,1-TCA to 1,1-DCA; dcrA dechlorinates 1,1-DCA to chloroethane|
|Aerobic Co-metabolism||sMMO||Soluble Methane monooxygenase (sMMO)||Co-metabolism of 1,1,1-TCA and 1,1- DCA|
|PMO||Propane monooxygenase (PMO)||Co-metabolism of chlorinated ethanes (e.g., 1,1,1-TCA) by propane utilizing bacteria|
|Chlorinated Methanes||Anaerobic||Dhb||Dehalobacter||Reductive dechlorination of chloroform to DCM; fermentation of DCM to acetate|
|cfrA/dcrA||Chloroform reductase (cfrA), Dichloroethane dehalogenase (dcrA)||cfrA converts chloroform to dichloromethane|
|Aerobic||sMMO||Soluble Methane monooxygenase (sMMO)||Co-metabolism of chloroform and dichloromethane|
|Chlorinated Propanes||Anaerobic||Dhg||Dehalogenimonas||Converts TCP to allyl chloride; DCP to propene|
|Dhc||Dehalococcoides||Converts DCP to propene|
|Dhb||Dehalobacter||Converts DCP to propene|
|Dsb||Desulfitobacterium||Dechlorination of TCP and DCP|
|BTEX||Anaerobic||SRB||Sulfate reducing bacteria via dissimilatory sulfate reductase (dsrA)||SRB are symbiotic partners to ORM-2 in anaerobic benzene degradation|
|ORM-2||Deltaproteobacterium ORM-2||ORM-2 anaerobic benzene degrader under sulfate reducing or methanogenic conditions|
|Pepto-ben||Benzene degrading Peptococcacae||Anaerobic benzene degradation under nitrate reducing conditions|
|abcA||Benzene Carboxylase (abcA)||Functional gene involved in benzene ring cleavage|
|Fuel Oxygenates||Aerobic||MTBE/TBA||Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1||MTBE/TBE degrading microorganism|
|tert-butyl alcohol hydroxylase (mdpJ)||Active on TBA in aerobic MTBE degradation pathway|
|HIBA mutase (hcmA)||Active on 2-HIBA in aerobic MTBE degradation pathway|
|Chlorinated Benzenes||Anaerobic||Dhc||Dehalococcoides||Partial dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, tetrachlorobenzene|
|Dhb||Dehalobacter||Reductive dechlorination of dichlorobenzenes, monochlorobenzene|
|Chlorinated Phenols||Anaerobic||Dhc||Dehalococcoides||Converts 2,3-dichlorophenol, trichlorophenols and pentachlorophenol to less chlorinated phenols|
|Chlorinated Biphenyls||Anaerobic||Dhc||Dehalococcoides||Dechlorinates select Aroclor 1260 congeners|
|Dhb||Dehalobacter||Activity for select congeners including 2,3,4-trichorobiphenyl; 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl|
|Dhg||Dehalogenimonas||Dechlorinates select Aroclor 1260 congeners|
|1,4-Dioxane||Aerobic metabolism||1,4-dioxane||Dioxane monooxygenase (dxmb)||Energy yielding 1,4-dioxane degradation|
|1,4-dioxane||Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)||Energy yielding 1,4-dioxane degradation|
|Aerobic Co-metabolism||pMMO||particulate Methane monooxygenase (pMMO)||Co-oxidation of 1,4-dioxane in presence of methane|
|sMMO||soluble Methane monooxygenase (sMMO)||Co-oxidation of 1,4-dioxane|
|PMO||Propane monooxygenase (PMO)||Co-oxidation of 1,4-dioxane in presence of propane|
|Nitrate /Ammonium||Anaerobic||Anammox||Brocadia, Kuenenia, Scalindua, Anammoxyglobus, Jettenia||Major anammox genera (anaerobic co-removal of ammonium and nitrite)|
|Prokaryotic Groups||Variable||Universal||Bacteria||Quantifies Bacteria – measure of total biomass|
|Arch||Archaea||Quantifies Archaea biomass, in highly anaerobic systems proxy for methanogens|
|SRB||Sulfate reducing bacteria via dissimilatory sulfate reductase (dsrA)||Anaerobic hydrocarbon oxidation/biogeochemical reduction/microbially induced corrosion|
|NGS||Bacteria/Archaea||Provides comprehensive chracterization of microbial communities|
SRB – sulfate reducing bacteria, PCE – tetrachloroethene, TCE – trichloroethene, c – cis, t – trans, DCE – dichloroethene, VC – vinyl chloride, 1,1,1-TCA – 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-DCA – 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-DCA – 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-TCA – 1,1,2-trichloroethane, TeCA – 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, DCM – dichloromethane, DCP – dichloropropane, TCP – trichloropropane
- Comprehensive reports provide detailed testing and quality control parameters
- Electronic data deliverables in various formats available
- USA or Canada sample reception options available
- Field filter protocols are available that reduce shipping costs
- Unparalleled technical support for data interpretation and planning